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Publishing Policies

Publication Ethics

PsychOpen journals require that all manuscripts comply with PsychOpen's Guidelines on Publication Ethics.

Plagiarism Screening

Crossref Similarity Check logo

PsychOpen uses Similarity Check, a multi-publisher initiative to screen published and submitted content for originality. Similarity Check uses the iThenticate software, which checks submissions against millions of published research papers (the Similarity Check database), documents on the web, and other relevant sources. These submitted papers are not retained in the Similarity Check system after they have been checked.

Read more at Crossresf's Similarity Check & Reseachers page.

Manuscript Preparation

PsychOpen's guidelines for mauscript preparation are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition (APA Style).

Submission Preparation and Management Guidelines

Follow these guidelines when preparing your manuscript for submission.

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fold faqAuthor Names

Provide all authors' full names in the form "[First name] [Middle names] [Surname]". Omit all titles/degrees (e.g. Dr., Prof. etc.). Mark the corresponding author with an asterisk (*). Only one author can be named as corresponding author, e.g.:

Barbara Jennifer Smith*

fold faqAuthor Affiliations

Provide your affiliation using the following pattern: "Department, Institution, City, Country", e.g.

Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

 

fold faqRunning Head

Provide a running head for each manuscript. The running head is a short title (no more than 50 characters) that appears in a paper’s header.

fold faqHeadings

Organize your manuscript by headings into an unambiguous hierarchy with at least two headings at each level. Use MS Word standard styles (Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3) to indicate heading level. Alternatively you may use the decimal system of headings (e.g., 1.3.1, 1.3.2).

Note: The decimal system will be replaced during production by appropriate layout styles.

fold faqAbstract

Each abstract should comprise a single paragraph without a heading (the abstract heading will be automatically generated during the layout procedure). Avoid introductory words such as "Abstract:" as well.

As an abstract has to be a stand-alone entity (because it is often published separately from an article), do not refer in it to tables or figures. References to the literature are also uncommon. Therefore, use them only if they are absolutely necessary (in this case, it is required to provide as detailed reference information as you would use in the reference list).

Papers in a language other than English require both an English-language and an original-language abstract.

fold faqFigures - Submission of Figures
  • First-time article submission: If you submit your article for review ( first-time submission) you may either embed screen-optimized, low-resolution (< 100 ppi) versions of your figures into the main body of your article, or supply print-ready, high-resolution versions as separate image files.
  • Accepted articles: For accepted articles all figures have to be supplied as separate, high-resolution (300 ppi), print-ready files. Maximum file size: 8 MB each. File format: PNG.

Note: Do not send image files by email. Instead, go to the journal home page, log into your author account, and upload each image file as a supplementary file.

fold faqFont Type

To avoid compatibility problems, use common Microsoft Word fonts (e.g., Times New Roman, Arial, Courier).

Do not include special characters as miniature images. Instead, use designated Word fonts (e.g., Symbol) or the Word Symbol Feature under “Insert > Symbol”.

fold faqFormatting Styles

Use only Microsoft Word standard styles for formatting article elements such as headings, paragraphs, words, characters, sections, and tables (e.g., „Normal“, „Heading 1“, „Emphasis“, “Bold”). Refrain from defining custom styles.

fold faqText - grammar and spelling

Take care that the grammar and spelling of your manuscript is accurate as language errors distract the reader and impede clear and efficient communication. Ask a colleague to proofread your paper to detect mistakes and contradictions.

For articles written in English authors may use consistently either British or American English.

fold faqAppendices

All appendices have to be appropriately labeled (e.g., use headings such as "Appendix 1", "Appendix 2" etc.). Identify all appendix tables and figures as appendix elements by giving them labels that combine capital letters with Arabic numerals (e.g. Table A1).

fold faqEnsuring a Blind Review

To ensure the integrity of a blind peer-review, every effort should be made to prevent the identities of the authors and reviewers from being known to each other. This requires the authors, editors, and reviewers (who upload documents as part of their review) checking to see if the following steps have been taken with regard to the text and the file properties:

  1. Author names and affiliations have been deleted from the text. All personal information about the authors are supplied with an extra "cover letter" submitted separately with the manuscript.
  2. Author identification has been removed from the properties for the file. For example, with Microsoft Office documents, look for the document properties under "File" in Word (the exact procedure to find and remove author information depends on the version of your software).

How to remove personal information from MS Office documents (external help pages):

fold faqHow can I upload a supplementary file?

To upload supplementary files (e.g. images) to a submitted manuscript go to the submission's page:

  1. At the journal's website, log on to your user account. The "User Home" page appears, which includes information on active submissions and a link to start a new submission.
  2. Here, click on the "Author" link. You will be directed to the "Active Submissions" page.
  3. Click on the hyperlinked title of the submission you want to add a supplementary file to. This will bring you to your submission's "Summary" page.
  4. Click "Add a Supplementary File". When asked for "Supplementary File Metadata", provide an identifying title for the file, such as "Figure 5".

Note: When starting a new submission, you can upload supplementary files at Step 4 of the online submission process ("Uploading Supplementary Files").

fold faqHow can I upload a revision of my article?
  1. At the journal's website, log on to your user account. The "User Home" page appears, which includes information on active submissions and a link to start a new submission.
  2. Here, click on the "Author" link. You will be directed to the "Active Submissions" page.
  3. Click on the hyperlinked title of the submission you want to update. This will bring you to your submission's "Summary" page.
  4. Switch to the "Review" page by clicking on "Review" below the page heading.
  5. Scroll down to the "Editor Decision" section. Use the "Upload Author Version" dialogue to "Browse" your local filesystem and "Upload" your new author version.
  6. Notify editor(s) about the new author version by clicking the mail/envelope icon beyond the "Editor Decision" heading. This will generate an email form ready to be send to the editor(s). Enter your message and click the "Send" button.

    Capitalization Guidelines

    Capitalization should be consistent within and between journal articles. There are rules for capitalization of headings, subheadings, table titles and footnotes, figure captions, and words in the body of your text and in the reference list.

    Show all / Hide all

    fold faqCapitalization - in titles (including table titles, and headings)

    In titles (including table titles, headings, and subheadings), capitalize

    • all major words. Major words are nouns, adjectives, verbs (including linking verbs), adverbs and pronouns.
    • all words that have four or more letters, even if they are not major words.
    • both elements in a hyphenated compound (e.g., Teacher-Rated).
    • the first word after a colon (:) or dash (—).

    Example:

    School Anxiety: Teacher-Rated Stress Factors in Bulgarian School Children

    Use lower-case letters for nonmajor words (conjunctions, articles, and short prepositions). To table and figure footnotes apply the capitalization rules for references (see below).

    Category: Capitalization
    fold faqCapitalization - in the reference list

    In the reference list, capitalize

    • only the first word of book and article titles (exception: retain the capitalization that is used by a journal in its title).
    • proper nouns (and words used as those).
    • the first word after a colon or dash.
    • the first constituent of a hyphenated compound at the beginning of a title or subtitle, or after a colon or dash (e.g. Teacher-rated).

    Example:

    Richards, M. (2005). School anxiety: Teacher-rated stress factors in Bulgarian school children. SchoolPSYCHOLOGY Journal, 7(1), 81-97.

    Category: Capitalization
    fold faqCapitalization - in the text body

    In the text body, capitalize

    • nouns followed by numerals in a numbered series (e.g. Table 4 shows that on Day 3 in Experiment 6...).
    • Titles of books and articles mentioned in the text (e.g. In his book, The Psychology of Everyday Things the author clarifies that...).
    • Titles of tests (e.g. Advanced Memory Test (AMT)).
    Category: Capitalization

    In-Text Citation and Reference List Guidelines

    Each reference cited in the text (in-text citation) must be contained in the reference list and vice versa. Make sure that the spelling of author names and the publication year are identical in both entries.

    Take care that the reference list is accurate, valid, and complete.

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    fold faqIn-Text Citations - general rules

    APA Style requires authors to use an author-date citation system. Insert the surname of the author and the publication year in the text in the form below:

    Name of the author is part of the narrative (nonparenthetical format):

    Jackson (2012) found out that humor prolongs life.

    Name is not part of the narrative (parenthetical format):

    Humor prolongs life as a recent study concluded (Jackson, 2012).

    When including multiple citations inside the same set of parentheses, alphabetize the studies (same order as in the reference list) and separate them by semicolons:

    Humor prolongs life as several recent studies concluded (Adler, 2011; Jackson, 2012; Miller, 2010).

    If your reference list contains two or more publications authored by the same person(s) in the same order and the same year, use lowercase suffixes immediately after the year to distinguish them, e.g.:

    Jackson & Miller (2012a, 2012b) found out that humor prolongs life.

    Use the suffixes also in the respective reference entries. Order those types of entries alphabetically by title (excluding nonmajor words).

    fold faqIn-Text Citations - 1-2 authors

    Authors are named throughout the manuscript:

    Jackson and Miller (2012) found out that humor prolongs life. [nonparenthetical]

    Humor prolongs life as a recent study concluded (Jackson & Miller, 2012). [parenthetical]

    Please note that in nonparenthetical format, the word “and” precedes the last author, while in parenthetical format, an ampersand (&) is used.

    fold faqIn-Text Citations - 3-5 authors

    All author names are listed at the first occurrence in text. Afterwards, the list is shortened to et al.:

    Jackson, Miller, and Stevens (2012) found out that humor prolongs life. [1st citation, nonparenthetical]

    Jackson et al. (2012) found out that humor prolongs life. [subsequent citations, nonparenthetical]

    Humor prolongs life as a recent study concluded (Jackson, Miller, & Stevens, 2012). [1st citation, parenthetical]

    Humor prolongs life as a recent study concluded (Jackson et al., 2012). [subsequent citations, parenthetical]

    Please note that in nonparenthetical format, the word “and” precedes the last author, while in parenthetical format, an ampersand (&) is used. A comma precedes "and"/"&" if an author list contains three or more names. Use a comma to set off the year in in-text citations in parenthetical format.

    If two or more reference entries with the same publication year can be shortened to the same form, precede et al. with the number of names necessary to distinguish the ambiguous references. E.g., Jackson, Miller, Stevens, Veith, and Parker, 2012 and Jackson, Miller, Veith, Parker, and Armstrong, 2012 would both shorten to Jackson et al., 2012. To avoid ambiguity, cite:

    Jackson, Miller, Stevens, et al. (2012) found out that humor prolongs life.

    Jackson, Miller, Veith, et al. (2012) found out that humor prolongs life.

    Please note that in this case, et al. is preceded by a comma. Also, as "et al." indicates plural, it can only stand for more than one name. If only one name is left to abbreviate, shortening is not possible, and all names have to be spelled out throughout the text.

    fold faqIn-Text Citations - 6 and more authors

    et al. is used right from the beginning:

    Jackson et al. (2012) found out that humor prolongs life. [nonparenthetical]

    Humor prolongs life as a recent study concluded. (Jackson et al., 2012) [parenthetical]

    If two or more reference entries with the same publication year can be shortened to the same form, precede et al. with the number of names necessary to distinguish the ambiguous references. E.g., Jackson, Miller, Stevens, Veith, and Parker, 2012 and Jackson, Miller, Veith, Parker, and Armstrong, 2012 would both shorten to Jackson et al., 2012. To avoid ambiguity, cite:

    Jackson, Miller, Stevens, et al. (2012) found out that humor prolongs life.

    Jackson, Miller, Veith, et al. (2012) found out that humor prolongs life.

    Please note that in this case, et al. is preceded by a comma. Also, as "et al." indicates plural, it can only stand for more than one name. If only one name is left to abbreviate, shortening is not possible, and all names have to be spelled out throughout the text.

    fold faqIn-Text Citations - no author

    If the author of a publication cannot be identified, use the first few words of the title (or the whole title if it is short) instead of an author name for your in-text citation. Enclose title words of articles, chapters, or Web pages with double quotation marks. Italicize the names of periodicals (journals, newsletters, magazines), as well as the titles of books, reports, and other separate, nonperiodical literature, e.g.:

    An increase of older people is expected (“Europe’s Population Ages,” 2012)

    An increase of older people is expected (Europe’s Seniors, 2012)

    fold faqIn-Text Citations - citing page numbers

    When providing page numbers – which is required for word-by-word citations, but also encouraged for paraphrased citations – insert them behind the year, set off by a comma. Do not use a colon for setting off the page numbers.

    Humor prolongs life as a recent study concluded (Jackson & Miller, 2012, pp. 120-121).

    If you are referring to a single page, precede the page number with p. (instead of pp.):

    Humor prolongs life as a recent study concluded (Jackson & Miller, 2012, p. 120).

    fold faqReference List - Author Names, Titles

    Author Names

    Display all authors’ names in an inverted format. Provide surnames as well as first and middle name initials for up to seven authors. Add an ampersand before the last author. Note: When referencing a book chapter, invert the chapter author’s name but not the editor’s name.

    Jackson, A. J., Miller, J. T., Stevens, G. K., Veith, S. L., Dexter, W. S., Hu, M.-L., & Gregory, K. A. (2012).

    If a work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors’ names, insert a comma followed by three ellipsis points, then add the last author’s name:

    Jackson, A. J., Miller, J. T., Stevens, G. K., Veith, S. L., Dexter, W. S., Hu, M.-L., … Gregory, K. A. (2012).

    In case the author is not known, move the title of the work to the author position, followed by a period, e.g.:

    Europe’s seniors. (2012).

    Titles

    Italicize the names of periodicals (journals, newsletters, magazines), as well as the titles of books, reports, and other separate, nonperiodical literature.

    Include additional information (e.g., report number, edition) in parentheses immediately after the title without setting it off with a period. Do not italicize the additional information:

    Collins, Bill (2012). Annual report on school psychology (Report No. 12-2012). New York: American Association of School Psychologists.

    fold faqReference List - Books

    For referencing books, use the template below:

    Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of book (xx ed., Vol. xx). Location: Publisher.

    Jackson, A. J., Miller, J. T., Stevens G. K., & Veith, S. L. (2012). Psychology in universities (2nd ed., Vol. 1). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    Jackson, A. J., Miller, J. T., Stevens G. K., & Veith, S. L. (2012). Psychology in universities (2nd ed., Vol. 1). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

    If a book was published in the U.S., provide the state abbreviation, if it was published outside the U.S., provide the country. For edited books, add "(Ed.)" and a period behind the editor's name, respectively "(Eds.)" for more than one editor:

    Jackson, A. J., Miller, J. T., Stevens G. K., & Veith, S. L. (Eds.). (2012). Psychology in universities (2nd ed., Vol. 1). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

    When author (respectively editor) and publisher are identical, do not repeat the name; rather, add the word "Author" (respectively "Editor") instead of the publisher name, e.g.:

    Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information. (2012). The official PsychOpen handbook. Trier, Germany: Author.

    fold faqReference List - Book Chapters

    For referencing book chapters, use the following template:

    Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (xx ed., Vol. xx, pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

    Jackson, A. J., Miller, J. T., & Stevens, G. K. (2012). School anxiety: Teacher-rated stress factors in Bulgarian school children. In M. Brunner, S. Page, & S. Gilbert (Eds.), Psychology in schools. London, United Kingdom: School Press.

    If a book has a single editor, use (Ed.) instead of (Eds.). Place additional information (e.g., edition number, volume, or page range) in parentheses immediately following the title:

    Jackson, A. J., Miller, J. T., & Stevens, G. K. (2012). School anxiety: Teacher-rated stress factors in Bulgarian school children. In M. Brunner (Ed.), Psychology in schools (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 12-37). London, United Kingdom: School Press.

    Provide a DOI if one is assigned. If a DOI is available, omit the publishing information, e.g.:

    Jackson, A. J., Miller, J. T., & Stevens, G. K. (2012). School anxiety: Teacher-rated stress factors in Bulgarian school children. In M. Brunner (Ed.), Psychology in schools (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 12-37). doi:10.1000/182

    For electronic books without a DOI add the exact landing page URL (xxxx) for the book from the publisher homepage. Use the format: Retrieved from xxxx

    Jackson, A. J., Miller, J. T., & Stevens, G. K. (2012). School anxiety: Teacher-rated stress factors in Bulgarian school children. In M. Brunner, S. Page, & S. Gilbert (Eds.), Psychology in schools (pp. 12-37). Retrieved from www.schoolpress.org/books/showitem.asp

    fold faqReference List - Journal Articles

    For referencing journal articles, use the template below:

    Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, pp-pp.

    Jackson, A. J., Miller, J. T., & Stevens, G. K. (2012). School anxiety: Teacher-rated stress factors in Bulgarian school children. Journal of Psychology in Schools, 53, 12-37.

    Provide a DOI if one is assigned:

    Jackson, A. J., Miller, J. T., & Stevens, G. K. (2012). School anxiety: Teacher-rated stress factors in Bulgarian school children. Journal of Psychology in Schools, 53, 12-37. doi:10.1000/186

    In cases where no DOI is available, include the journal homepage URL (xxxx) for the periodical. Use the format: Retrieved from xxxx

    Jackson, A. J., Miller, J. T., & Stevens, G. K. (2012). School anxiety: Teacher-rated stress factors in Bulgarian school children. Journal of Psychology in Schools, 53, 12-37. Retrieved from www.psischool.org

    If a journal is paginated separately by issue (i.e., each issue begins with Page 1), provide the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number, without italicizing it, e.g.:

    Journal of Psychology in Schools, 53(4), 12-37.

    fold faqReference List - Magazine Articles

    For magazine articles, use the following template:

    Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year, month). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume number(Issue number), pp-pp.

    Miller, T. M. (2012, September). Is college a lucrative investment? College Magazine, 58(9), 64-78.

    For an online magazine article provide the home page URL (xxxx) of the magazine by using the format: Retrieved from xxxx

    fold faqReference List - Newspaper Articles

    For newspaper articles, use the template below:

    Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year, month, day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pp. xx-xx.

    Beckstein, D., & Mannbach, G. (2012, September 12). Increased air traffic backfires. The Trier Express, pp. A1, A3-A4, A6.

    Note that page numbers of newspaper articles are preceded with p. (for one-page articles) or pp. (for articles longer than one page).

    Cite articles appearing on discontinuous pages by listing all page numbers (group continuous pages to page ranges, e.g. A3-A4), set off by a comma.

    fold faqReference List - Technical and Research Reports

    Technical and research reports are formatted like books. If a report has a report number or other ID assigned by the publishing organization, add the number in parenthetical format immediately after the title, e.g.:

    Thompson, E., & Baldwin, G. (2010). Psychology publishing report (Report No. PPR-03/2010). Los Angeles, CA: Organization of Psychology Publishers.

    When referencing an electronically available report where publisher and author are different entities, include the publisher name in the retrieval information, which is then set off with a colon, e.g.:

    Thompson, E., & Baldwin, G. (2010). Psychology publishing report (Report No. PPR-03/2010). Retrieved from Organization of Psychology Publishers Website: opp.org/reports/113/ppr-03-2010.pdf

    fold faqReference List - Proceedings

    Paper presentations or contributions to meetings or symposia can be either formally or informally published.

    Formally released proceedings are published in book or periodical format. In those cases, use the same format you would use for books, book chapters, or periodicals.

    For informally published papers, provide the year and the month as well as the conference name and location. If available, add a URL:

    Stevens, G. K. (2012, September). Distribution of open-access publications in Europe. Paper presented at the Third Open Access in Europe Conference, Trier, Germany. Retrieved from http://www.oa-in-europe.com/3rdconf/paper12.pdf

    For symposium contributions, use the following template:

    Stevens, G. K. (2012, September). Distribution of open-access publications in Europe. In S. B. Finley (Chair), Open access in Europe. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the European Open Access Organization, Trier, Germany.

    See also this APA blog post on citing materials from meetings and symposia:

    http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2012/08/how-to-cite-materials-from-meetings-and-symposia.html

    fold faqReference List - Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

    Doctoral dissertations and master’s theses can be retrieved from institutional repositories, websites, or subscription databases (such as ProQuest).

    For a dissertation retrieved from a commercial database use the following template:

    Author, A. A. (year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis). Available from Name of Database. (Accession or order number)

    Finsley, M. A. (2012). Open access in psychology: A user analysis with a special focus on European countries (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1234567)

    For dissertations and theses from universities outside the U.S. additionally name the degree awarding institution, the city, and the country. For noncommercial electronic sources use "Retrieved from" instead of "Available from":

    Finsley, M. A. (2012). Open access in psychology: A user analysis with a special focus on European countries (Doctoral dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany). Retrieved from http://www.mafinsley.com/dissertation.pdf

    For dissertations and theses from the U.S., provide only the name of the institution, and omit the name of the city and country. If a dissertation or thesis is published in a repository belonging to the degree awarding institution, the institution information is omitted as well, e.g.:

    Finsley, M. A. (2012). Open access in psychology: A user analysis with a special focus on the U.S. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.standford-edocs.edu/dissertations/2356178

    Cite an unpublished doctoral or master’s thesis by using this format:

    Author, A. A. (year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Name of Institution, Location.

    Finsley, M. A. (2012). Open access in psychology: A user analysis with a special focus on European countries (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

    Numbers and Statistical Symbols Guidelines

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    fold faqDecimal Fractions

    The decimal point should be preceded by a zero with numbers less than 1, when the statistic can exceed 1 (e.g., 0.81 cm).

    Omit the zero before a decimal fraction, when the statistic cannot exceed 1 (for example, levels of significance, correlations, proportions; e.g., p = .028).

    fold faqStatistical Symbols

    APA Style uses three different typefaces for preparing statistical symbols and mathematical copy in manuscripts: standard, boldface, and italic. These rules also apply to the contents of tables and figures.

    Use a standard typeface for Greek letters, subscripts, superscripts, and abbreviations that are not variables, e.g.:

    α, βi, log, LSD, MSE, μboys

    Set in boldface symbols for vectors and matrices, e.g.:

    V,

    Use italic typeface for all other statistical symbols, e.g.:

    p, N, Mx, d, df, t, F, SD

    In equations, always leave a space before and after the equal sign, the greater-than sign, the greater-than-or-equal sign, the less-than sign, and the less-than-or-equal sign. Do not use a blank before a statistical symbol (such as t, F, χ²) and the degree of freedoms set in parentheses, e.g.

    t(75) = 2.14, n = 9, p < .001

    Note: Never insert statistical symbols or other special characters as miniature images as this causes processing errors during the copyediting and layout procedure.

    Tables Guidelines

    Particular attention should be given to tables while preparing your manuscript for publication.

    Show all / Hide all

    fold faqTables
    Table Title

    Provide a concise and explanatory title for each table. Table titles should contain a table number and should be placed above the table. Capitalize all major words (nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, pronouns), all words that have four or more letters, both elements in a hyphenated compound (e.g., Teacher-Rated), and words after a colon (:) or dash (—).

    Example:

    Table 3. Factor Loadings of the School Anxiety Inventory — Teacher-Rated Results From Study 1

    Table Structure

    To avoid any disorganization of content during the partially automatized copyediting procedure, provide a separate cell for each content item (instead of setting off content elements by using tabs or returns within the same cell). The table content should be placed into a single Microsoft Word table. Do not split it into separate tables.

    Column Heads

    The column heads should be as brief as possible – ideally they do not have more characters than the widest entry.

    Decimal Values

    Whenever possible, use the same number of decimal places for decimal values (if possible, round to two decimal places).

    Table Referencing

    Reference every table in the text, e.g., "see Table 1" or "as shown in Table 2".

    Table Borders and Shading

    Only use horizontal borders at the top and the bottom of the whole table as well as the bottom of the header row. Eliminate all vertical borders. Do not use any shading.

     

    Category: Tables Guidelines
    fold faqTables - Footnotes

    APA Style uses three different kinds of footnotes. All of them are placed below a table:

    General Notes

    General notes refer to the table as a whole (e.g. reproduction acknowledgements, explanations of abbreviations, symbols etc.). They are introduced with the italicized word "Note" followed by a period.

    Specific Notes

    Specific notes refer to a particular part of a table (column, row, cell). They are indicated by a superscript letter. Within the table header and body, order superscript anchors for specific footnotes from left to right and from top to bottom.

    Probability Notes

    Probability notes are used to explain how asterisks and other symbols are used in a table to indicate p values.

     

    Below the table, order the footnotes beginning with general notes followed by specific notes, and ending with probability notes. End every footnote with a period. Use a separate paragraph for each footnote type, e.g.:

    Note. CSESG = Children Self-Efficacy Scale - Girls. CSESB = Children Self-Efficacy Scale - Boys.
    aThe women sample was excluded from this measure. bn = 90. cn = 70.
    *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001.

    Category: Tables Guidelines

    Figures Guidelines

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    fold faqFigures

    Create your figures with a graphics software (e.g., GIMP, Photoshop, CorelDraw). Do not use other means to create figures (e.g., Word text fields or embedded Excel diagrams).

    • File format: Please provide figures in .png format.
    • Backgrounds and borders: Use a white or transparent background and no image borders.
    • Texts: Text within figures must be in Arial font (exceptions: symbols not available with Arial), between 8 and 12 point.
    • Captions and footnotes: Figure captions and footnotes have to be included in the main body of the article (below the figure), not as part of the figure. Capitalize only the first word (exceptions: proper nouns and the first word after a colon or dash). In contrast, figure legends are an integral part of a figure and must be placed within it. Major words in legends should be capitalized.
    • Figure Referencing: All figures must be referred to in the text, e.g., "see Figure 1" or "as shown in Figure 2".
    Category: Figure Guidelines
    fold faqFigures - Submission of Figures
    • First-time article submission: If you submit your article for review ( first-time submission) you may either embed screen-optimized, low-resolution (< 100 ppi) versions of your figures into the main body of your article, or supply print-ready, high-resolution versions as separate image files.
    • Accepted articles: For accepted articles all figures have to be supplied as separate, high-resolution (300 ppi), print-ready files. Maximum file size: 8 MB each. File format: PNG.

    Note: Do not send image files by email. Instead, go to the journal home page, log into your author account, and upload each image file as a supplementary file.

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